Abortus : Miscarriage. It refers to all losses before 20 weeks of gestation.
Adenomyosis : Displacement of the uterine lining tissue into the uterine muscle tissue.
Adhesion : Adhesions. Usually used for adhesions on the uterine wall or in the abdomen.
Agonist : Usually used for GnRH hormone agonists. They are artificial copies of our natural hormones.
Acrosome : It is a compartment in the head of the sperm. Thanks to the enzymes in the acrosome, it is able to cross its layer. It plays an important role in the natural fertilisation reaction.
Anembryonic Pregnancy : Although the gestational sac is formed, there is no embryo (baby) inside. Empty sac or also called a blighted ovum.
Amenorrhoea : Lack of menstruation. The cause is usually the absence of ovulation.
AMH : Anti Müllerian Hormone. Hormone secreted from antral follicles in the ovaries. Ovarian is used in the evaluation of the reserve.
Amniocentesis : It is the process of sampling the fluid that the baby is in by entering the womb with the help of a needle.
Androgen : All male hormones are called androgens. Excessive increase in women infertility, menstrual irregularities, may cause increased hair growth and acne.
Andrology : Subspecialty of Urology which involves treatment of various conditions causing male infertility and male sexual dysfunction.
Anovulation : Absence of ovulation.
Aneuploidy : It is a numerical chromosome disorder. The most well-known example is 'Down Syndrome'.
Antral follicle : They are fluid sacs containing eggs with a diameter of 2-4 mm, which can be seen by ultrasound in the ovaries. Antral follicle count is one of the tests that can most accurately estimate ovarian reserve.
ART : Assisted reproductive technologies.
Asherman Syndrome : Failure of the endometrium (uterine wall) to function due to adhesion. Menstrual bleeding. It either does not occur, or the amount and duration are very small. Usually caused by abortion or uterine infection.
Assisted Hatching : Assisting implantation by laser or mechanical puncture of the outer layer of the embryo process.
Asthenospermia : Low sperm motility.
Azoospermia : No sperm in the semen.
Biochemical Pregnancy : The pregnancy test is positive in the blood, but the gestational sac cannot be observed in the uterus.
Biopsy : A procedure to remove a piece of tissue or a sample of cells from your body so that it can be tested in a laboratory.
Blastomer : After the egg is fertilised, the process of division begins. With this division, cells that are identical to each other are formed. Each of these cells is called a blastomere.
Blastocyst : It is a stage of the embryo. After fertilisation, the embryo first reaches the morula stage and then the blastocyst stage.
Blood testicular barrier : A physical barrier that prevents certain elements in the blood from passing to the testes.
Chocolate Cyst : These are cysts (endometrioma) formed in the ovaries by endometriosis.
Calcium ionophore : A method used in non-activated embryos.
Capacitation : The maturation of the sperm to enter the ovum.
Catheter : A millimetre tube with a thin lumen in the centre for the transfer of the embryo into the uterus.
Compactisation : This is the appearance of the embryo on the 4th day of fertilisation. The cells appear to be fused with each other.
Congenital : Congenital
Conceptus : All pregnancy materials, including embryos and damages.
Cervix : Cervix
Cycle : Menstrual cycle
DNA damage : Distortion of the genetic code of the sperm or egg.
Donor : A person who donates eggs, sperm or embryos.
Donation : In a couple with no eggs and/or sperm or dysfunctional sperm, it is recommended that these cells are replaced by different ones. It is obtained from an individual through donation and used in treatment.
Dominant follicle : A follicle (sac containing an egg) that grows faster than others in a natural cycle.
Ductus deferens : The duct that allows sperm to reach the excretory from the epididymis.
Ectopic Pregnancy : It is the placement of the pregnancy material in an area other than where it should be. Most commonly in the tubes. Ectopic pregnancy.
Ejaculation : Ejaculation
Ejekulat : Male ejaculatory fluid.
Ectopic Pregnancy : Ectopic pregnancy
Embryo : This is the name given to the egg after fertilisation.
Embryogenesis : It is the formation stage of the embryo.
Embryo biopsy : Cell sampling from the embryo. Genetic evaluation of the embryo and sex determination.
Embryo donation : A couple diagnosed with infertility receives both sperm and eggs as donations from different individuals.
Embryonic stem cells : The ability of the embryo to develop into any human tissue or even a living being. It is the potential of the cells.
Embryo cryopreservation : Cryopreservation of the embryo.
Embryo Transfer : Implantation of the embryo into the mother's womb.
Endometrial receptivity : It is the potential of the endometrium to accept the implantation of the embryo. Receptivity is related with the ability of the uterine wall. It is the capacity for perception.
Endometrium : Uterine wall. The tissue lining the inside of the uterus. This is where the pregnancy is implanted.
Endometrioma : Chocolate cyst. A cystic structure formed in the ovaries by endometriosis.
Endometriosis : Endometrium is a condition where the endometrium is found outside of where it should be. Usually in the intra-abdominal membranes and the ovaries.
Estrogen / Estrogen : Female hormone. Secreted by the ovaries. Responsible for thickening of the uterine wall.
ET : Embryo transfer
Euploidy : The embryo has a normal chromosome number
Estrogen / Oestrogen : Female hormone
Frozen embryo transfer : The process of freezing and thawing embryos and then transferring them (FET).
Fertilisation : It is the merging of the genetic codes of the sperm entering the egg.
Fallopian tubes : Organs that allow the egg and sperm to meet. It is located in the continuation of the uterus in the female body.
Fertilisation : The penetration of the sperm into the egg. 24 hours after this event, the egg and sperm nuclei come together and the embryo begins to divide.
Folic Acid : It is a type of B vitamin. It is recommended to be taken before pregnancy and in the first 13 weeks of pregnancy. Cell plays an important role in regeneration. In its deficiency, the baby's central nervous system anomalies may occur.
Follicle : Fluid-filled sac containing eggs. It is located in the ovaries.
Fragmentation : Dark-coloured particles that appear during the development of the embryo. Their high rate of occurrence indicates that the quality of the embryo is poor.
Frozen Embryo : Cryopreservation of embryos.
FSH : Follicle stimulating hormone. A hormone secreted by the brain that stimulates the ovaries.
Fibroids : Benign tumours arising from the muscle tissue of the uterus
Gender selection : Pre-determination of the sex of the embryo to be transferred.
Gametes : General name for sperm and egg. Reproductive cells.
Germ Cells : Reproductive cells
Globozoospermia : It is the absence of the organelle in the head of the sperm called acrosome. In IVF treatments, issues may occur during the fertilisation phase.
GnRH : Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The release of FSH and LH hormones from the lower centres of the brain. It is responsible for secretion. Synthetic derivatives of this hormone are used in in vitro fertilisation treatments. It plays a vital role.
Granulosa Cells : These are the cells that help the egg in the follicle.
Gynaecology : Gynaecological diseases
Haploid : Indicates the number of chromosomes carried by reproductive cells. N:23
HCG : Human Chorionic Gonadotropin. Pregnancy hormone. Used in the diagnosis of pregnancy.
Hyperstimulation : Increased free fluid in the abdomen as a result of excessive stimulation of the ovaries. (OHSS)
Hyperprolactinaemia : Excess milk hormone secretion
Hysterosalpingography : (HSG) Also known as uterine X-ray. With the help of a cannula, an opaque substance is injected through the cervix. The integrity of the intrauterine cavity and tubes is checked.
Hysteroscopy : Diagnosis of intrauterine pathologies by entering the cervix with a tiny camera It is a surgical method used for treatment. It can be diagnostic or operative.
ICSI : Injection of sperm into the egg. Fertilisation during in vitro fertilisation.
IMSI : Injection of sperm selected by stoplasmic morphology. The selection of healthy sperm A method.
IUI : Vaccination. Injecting sperm into the mother's uterus with a syringe.
IVF : In vitro fertilisation
Implantation : Attachment of the embryo to the uterine wall.
Induction : Stimulation of the ovaries
Infertility : Infertility
Incubator : A special place in which the embryo grows until it is transferred to the mother's womb
In vitro fertilisation : It is the most successful method of assisted reproduction. Egg and sperm iare joined together in the lab and implanted in the mother's womb.
Karyotype : Genetic analysis
Klivaj : The stage at which the embryo begins to divide.
Low ovarian reserve : Low number of eggs in women.
Laparoscopy : Surgery/intervention on intra-abdominal organs for diagnostic or operative purposes with the help of a camera (Endoscopy, closed surgery...)
LH : Luteinising hormone. A hormone secreted by the brain that triggers ovulation.
Male Factor : Infertility (infertility) caused by the male (sperm disorder, dysfunction).
Masturbation : Manual ejaculation of semen.
Menopause : Complete cessation of menstruation for 1 year after 39 years of age.
Mens period : Menstrual phase. Menstrual period.
Microinjection : Injection of sperm into the egg with the help of a cannula.
Morphology : A term used to describe the structure of sperm.
Mozaicism : An individual has 2 or more genetically different cells.
Natural cycle : The egg is fertilised without the use of any external gonadotropin (hormone) or hatching needle. It is the collection process.
NGS : The largest genetic diagnostic method applied to the embryo (Next Generation Sequencing).
OHSS : Hyperstimulation syndrome. See hyperstimulation
Oligo-ovulasyon : Fewer ovulations than normal
Oligo-spermia (oligozoospermia) : Fewer sperm than normal in sperm count. Less than 20 million /mL.
Oligo-menorrhoea : Menstrual period intervals of more than 35 days.
Oophorectomy : Removal of the ovary.
Oocyte : Egg
Oocyte Donation : Egg donation. For an expectant mother whose eggs are unhealthy or completely depleted; young and conception by transferring an egg from a healthy donor.
Oocyte cryopreservation : Egg freezing, egg storage
OPU : Oocyte collection. (Oocyte Pick Up)
Ovarian Insufficiency : Lack of healthy eggs in the ovaries.
Ovarian cycle : Ovulation cycle
Over : Ovary
Ovulation : The process in which a mature egg is released from the ovary.
Ovulation Induction : Stimulation of the ovaries with drugs.
Ovaries : Organs containing the female ovum.
Pooling : The best quality embryo(s) obtained after multiple egg retrieval procedures to be transferred at once. (POOLING)
Pituitary : Centres in the brain that secrete important hormones.
PESA : Percutaneous Sperm Aspiration. Interventional removal of sperm from the testes.
PGD (PGD ) : Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis. Sex and numerical chromosomal abnormalities are analysed.
Placenta : The organ that provides nourishment to the baby.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome : 15 or more antral follicles in the ovaries and accompanying menstrual delays, increased hair growth.
Polyp : Benign tumours that can be found in the uterus or cervix.
Premature Ovarian Failure : (POF) Depletion of eggs before the age of 40.
Progesterone : A hormone secreted by the ovaries that ensures maturation of the uterine wall and maintenance of pregnancy.
Primary infertility : No previous pregnancy.
Recurrent pregnancy loss : 2 or more miscarriages in a row.
Stem cell : Cells that can proliferate by division and potentially develop into the desired mature cells.
Secondary infertility : Patients who had a previous pregnancy but were diagnosed with infertility afterwards.
Spermatogenesis : The process of sperm formation.
Spermiogram : Sperm analysis. Analysing the viability, structure, motility and density of sperm under microscope. Evaluation. (Analysis of the semen)
Sonohysterography : It is an ultrasound method performed by introducing water into the uterus. Intrauterine polyps or fibroids is the most reliable method. It does not require anaesthesia. It is not a painful procedure.
Sperm : Male reproductive cells.
Sperm freezing : Cryopreservation of sperm.
Submucous fibroids : Myoma is located in the endometrial cavity; that is, in the place where the pregnancy will settle.
Subserous myoma : The fibroid is located under the outer lining of the rami.
Stimulation of the ovaries : Ovulation induction. Ensuring egg growth with FSH and LH hormones.
Teratospermia : The spermatozoa are largely deformed (morphologically).
Teratogen : All factors that may lead to anomalies or adverse effects for the baby.
Testosterone : Male hormone
Testis : Male reproductive organs. Organs where sperm and reproductive hormones are produced.
TESA : Testicular sperm aspiration. Extraction of sperm from the testes by aspiration method.
TESE (Micro TESE) : Taking sperm from the testicles by biopsy. It is done by removing some tissue from the testicles. It is an interventional method. It is the most effective method for searching sperm.
Thyroid : The thyroid gland regulates many functions of the body, including working speed, with the hormones it secretes. Reproductive hormones can be affected by thyroid disorders.
Tubal Factor : The cause of infertility due to closed tubes in women.
Tubal Pregnancy : Implantation of gestational material in one of the tubes. Ectopic pregnancy.
Ultrasound (ultrasound) : An imaging method that works with sound waves.
Umbilical cord : Umbilical cord
Uterus : The womb. The organ in which the baby grows.
Vaccination : Sperm is injected into the mother's uterus with the help of a cannula after passing through certain stages.
Vagina : One of the female reproductive organs.
Varicocele : Vasodilatation of the testicles. Male factor is one of the causes of infertility.
Viability : Sperm viability.
Viscosity : Sperm fluidity.
Vitrification : It is the most modern method used for cell or embryo freezing in IVF. Since the embryo is frozen quickly, there is no significant decrease in quality after thawing.
Yolk sac : The structure responsible for feeding the baby in early pregnancy.
Zygote : Fertilised egg cell.
XX : Genetically female
XY : Genetically male