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Frequently Asked

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What is IVF?

In vitro fertilization is the most effective treatment for couples who experience infertility for various reasons. As part of this treatment, eggs and sperm are brought together in a laboratory environment and the embryo(s) are implanted into the mother's uterus.

What are the stages of IVF treatment?

It is initiated with the evaluation of the couple and the test results before the treatment. The next steps are egg retrieval, egg collection and embryo transfer. After egg collection, the eggs are fertilised in the laboratory and the embryos are followed up, in addition to genetic diagnostics such as PGD or NGS, if necessary.

Does IVF increase the chance of congenital anomalies?

In IVF pregnancies, the chance of genetic anomalies increases. This is because IVF treatment is applied more frequently to older women. The possibility of these anomalies is reduced with genetic diagnostic tests during IVF.

Which tests should be requested before IVF treatment?

The couple who have been diagnosed with infertility or for whom IVF treatment is planned due to a special condition (genetic diseases, recurrent miscarriages, sex determination):  Uterine X-ray, blood tests of the woman and man and spermiogram tests are performed. If necessary, several special tests including karyotype (genetic analysis) and sperm DNA damage can be performed.

What is ovarian reserve?

It is the amount of eggs remaining in a woman's ovaries. 

How is ovarian reserve measured?

With our current knowledge, we evaluate ovarian reserve by using AMH (anti-millerian hormone) test in the blood and the number of antral follicles in the ovaries by ultrasound. FSH and oestrogen hormone levels on the 2nd or 3rd day of menstruation are inconsistent and are no longer used as primary indicators.

What is vaccination method (pregnancy vaccination)?

Vaccination is a method of stimulating the ovaries of the woman, triggering ovulation, and at the same time, the male sperm is washed and delivered into the uterus with the help of a cannula.  Vaccination is a primitive method and the chances of success are considerably lower than IVF treatment. It can be applied in selected cases as the cost and stress of the treatment will be less than IVF treatment.

What is ovulation induction?

In the ovaries of a woman of reproductive age, an average of 10-20 eggs tend to grow every month. One of them (the dominant follicle) prevents the others from growing and is itself released into the tubal lining through ovulation.  In assisted reproductive treatments (vaccination, in vitro fertilisation, etc.), hormones or drugs that increase hormone production are given externally to collect as many eggs as possible. This stimulates all follicles (fluid sacs containing eggs) that can grow in a cycle (monthly cycle). When these follicles reach a certain size (on average 18 mm), hormone medication is administered to help the eggs mature. This is called ovulation induction.

How is ICSI (microinjection) IVF (in vitro fertilisation) different from classical IVF?

In conventional IVF, the egg is placed in a container with healthy sperm. One of the sperm pierces the egg membrane and initiates the fertilisation process itself. In ICSI, on the other hand, the sperm is taken with the help of a thin cannula and placed into the egg. In this way, it is not left to chance for the sperm to enter the egg. The egg fertilisation rate is higher with the ICSI method.

Is vaccination necessary before IVF treatment?

Vaccination treatment requires favourable conditions for success.  If a man with a normal sperm count and a woman with regular ovulation do not have problems with the frequency of sexual intercourse, the chance of benefit from vaccination is very small. Although it is beneficial in selected patient groups, the vaccination method is not applied before every IVF treatment. 

Does blocked tubes necessarily require IVF treatment?

If the tubes are blocked, it is thought to be blocked due to a damage. Even if the tubes are opened with an operation, the damage to the tube cannot be repaired. If both tubes are blocked, IVF treatment is necessary.

Does a single blocked tube decrease the chance of pregnancy?

Blockage of a single tube does not significantly reduce the chance of pregnancy. 

What are the most common causes of female factor infertility?

The most common cause of female factor infertility is ovulation problems (such as polycystic ovary syndrome). Other causes include decreased ovarian reserve, diseases involving the tubes, vaginismus and endometriosis.

Is IVF always the only treatment for male factor infertility?

Depending on the detected abnormality in the spermiogram, there are many treatments available to improve sperm motility and structural abnormalities. Immediate cessation of smoking will be one of the most effective treatments.

What is the maximum number of times IVF treatment can be repeated?

There is no definite upper limit for IVF treatments, but no more than 7-8 attempts are recommended. This is because the chances of pregnancy are low. Each treatment causes financial and moral devastation to the couple. If it is confirmed that the problem is caused by sperm or egg, donation treatment may be recommended.  Donation treatments are legally practiced in Cyprus.

Why are IVF treatments different in Cyprus?

Unlike many other countries in the world, IVF regulations in the northern part of Cyprus allow egg, sperm and embryo donation.

What is donation?

Donation is when couples who are unable to achieve pregnancy with their own reproductive cells receive eggs, sperm or both from other individuals.

What is IMSI (intrastoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection)?

IMSI is a sperm selection method in IVF treatment.  Especially in cases of severe male factor (very low sperm count, low motility and poor structural condition), the sperm to be implanted into the egg must be carefully selected. While a normal sperm selection method selects sperm under 400 times magnification, the IMSI method uses a magnification of 6000-10000. In this way, the nucleus of the sperm can also be evaluated. We apply this method as standard in IVF treatment in Cyprus in our own laboratory.

What is sperm donation?

Sperm donation is obtained from a registered international sperm bank to be used in the IVF procedure. The woman's eggs are fertilized with the sperm and transferred to the mother's uterus.

Where can I apply for sperm donation?

You can apply for sperm donation at an authorised IVF center. The fertility center can request sperm for you from any sperm bank in the world.

In which season should IVF treatment be performed?

IVF success rates are not affected by the seasons.

Are IVF treatments performed in Cyprus also performed in other countries around the world?

Although treatments such as egg donation are performed in a few countries around the world, Cyprus is the best choice in terms of price, success rate, transportation, safety and waiting time.

What is the microinjection method (ICSI)?

It is a method in which sperm is injected into the egg with the help of a microscopic cannula during IVF treatment. This method is used as standard in our clinic during IVF treatment in Cyprus.

What is azoospermia?

It is the absence of sperm in the male ejaculate.

Does azoospermia always require sperm donation treatment?

In case of azoospermia, the cause is investigated and a tissue sample is obtained from the testicles with the micro-TESE procedure and sperm is searched under a microscope. You can check the current section of our website for treatment success and details.

Does smoking cause infertility?

Smoking causes infertility both in men and women. In women, it negatively affects not only the eggs, but also the uterine wall. In men, it has a negative effect on sperm motility and sperm DNA.

How is egg retrieval (OPU) performed?

Since egg retrieval is a painful procedure, it is recommended under anaesthesia. Under ultrasound guidance through the vagina, a thin needle is inserted into the ovaries. The eggs are removed from the body along with the fluid in the follicles.

Is egg retrieval a painful procedure?

If there is only one follicle, it hurts like any other injection, but if there are many eggs, it is recommended to be performed under anaesthesia.

For how long should I stay at the IVF center after egg retrieval?

Egg retrieval is performed with a superficial and short-term anesthesia method called sedation (sedoanalgesia). The drug effect ends a few minutes after the drug is discontinued and the patient wakes up. After waking up, there may be a groin pain similar to menstrual pain. The patient can usually go home after 1-2 hours.

Do hormone drugs used in IVF treatment cause cancer?

Extensive studies have shown that cancer types, including ovarian cancer, do not increase in patients undergoing IVF treatment.

Will the donor and recipient parents know each other in egg donation?

The essence of donation treatment is confidentiality. The expectant parents should never know the donor's name or surname or see a photo of the donor. This is ethically inappropriate and can lead to serious legal problems!

Which hormones should be checked before embryo transfer?

When preparing for the transfer, oestrogen and progesterone should be checked. A spontaneous increase in progesterone, especially if it occurs prematurely, prevents the embryo from attaching to the mother's uterus.  

What should be the size of the uterine wall before embryo transfer?

The endometrium, i.e. the uterine wall, should be at least 7.5 mm before transfer. 

What does embryo transfer involve?

After the eggs are fertilised, they are called embryos. After fertilisation, the embryo(s) are transferred into the uterus by passing through the cervix with the help of a thin cannula in the gynaecological examination position under ultrasound guidance.

How many embryos should be transferred?

Each embryo transferred increases your chances of conception.  However, each embryo transferred increases the risk of multiple pregnancy. When deciding on the optimal number of embryos, many factors such as the quality of the embryos, the age of the expectant mother, how many embryos there are in total, whether the embryos have a genetic diagnosis, previous IVF results, as well as the family's request are very important. The number of embryos to be transferred in IVF treatment in Cyprus is determined according to these conditions.

Is multiple embryo transfer necessarily result in multiple pregnancy?

Even if more than one embryo is transferred, a single pregnancy is usually achieved. This is because not all embryos can successfully attach to the mother's uterus. This is also the main reason for multiple embryo transfer.

What is the procedure in case of multiple pregnancies?

Twin pregnancies are usually followed up and successfully delivered unless the family has a special request. Triplets, on the other hand, require intervention as they can lead to premature birth and severe growth retardation. In a appropriate week, the heart of the most unhealthy embryo is stopped by inserting a needle into the womb. This decision is entirely up to the family.

Can other babies be harmed during embryo reduction?

Since this procedure is performed by specialised doctors, this risk is minimal, but other embryo(s) may also be harmed by the intervention.  However, considering the benefit-loss ratio, the reduction procedure is strongly recommended as deciding to continue a triplet pregnancy would put the other two babies at significant risk.

Can I immediately resume daily activities after embryo transfer?

There is no difference in pregnancy rates between resuming daily activities 5 minutes or 2 hours after embryo transfer. Prolonged rest may disrupt the body's blood flow. We recommend that the patient resumes normal activities.

Which diet should be followed after embryo transfer?

The expectant mother should follow a natural diet as much as possible after the transfer. She should continue to eat the same amount of food as before the transfer. Foods that can change the functioning of the body, such as herbal teas and tropical fruits, should be avoided. Excessive sugary foods should be avoided.

Can I take a bath after embryo transfer?

It is not recommended to take very cold or very hot baths after embryo transfer. It would be better to take a bath with lukewarm water standing in the shower. Although bathing is generally not recommended on the day of the transfer, there is nothing proven in this regard.

Is sexual intercourse harmful after embryo transfer?

Although sexual intercourse is not recommended until the pregnancy test, there is no evidence that this has any effect on success. 

Can I exercise after embryo transfer?

Again, exercise is not recommended until the pregnancy test, but absolute bed rest will not be appropriate. Short walks can be done after the pregnancy test. 

What should be done if pregnancy is decided after tubal ligation?

If pregnancy is decided after tubal ligation, the most appropriate approach would be in vitro fertilisation treatment. Reparation of the tubes with surgery is a treatment option with a low probability of healthy pregnancy and a high risk of ectopic pregnancy.

What is the best approach for pregnancy in case of fluid in the tubes (hydrosalpinx) or inflammation (pyosalpinx)?

Fluid in the tubes is a condition that significantly reduces the chance of spontaneous pregnancy and the success of IVF. When this problem occurs, the diseased tube should be removed by laparoscopic (closed) operation. 

What is the most common cause of fluid accumulation in the tubes and tubal obstruction?

Infections such as Chlamydia and Neisseria are the most common causes of adhesions, obstruction and fluid accumulation in the tubes.

Is it possible for a woman in menopause to become pregnant?

Menopausal women also have a chance of pregnancy with egg donation treatment. In Cyprus, in women who have entered menopause with IVF treatment, if the sperm results are normal, we achieve a pregnancy rate of 70-90%.

How can you tell if IVF treatment is successful?

The classic signs of pregnancy are mild pain in the groin like menstrual cramps, breast tenderness, nausea or spotting vaginal bleeding. Nevertheless, the only way to detect pregnancy is to measure the b-Hcg hormone in the blood.

Is there an increase in health problems in babies born with IVF treatment?

To date, there is no evidence of an increase in health problems in children born with IVF treatment.

Is IVF treatment useful in recurrent pregnancy losses (miscarriages)?

The most common cause of recurrent pregnancy loss is genetic problems. Apart from this, the cause of many miscarriages is unclear. During IVF treatment, genetic diagnostic tests such as PGD or NGS can be performed to check whether the embryo has a genetic disease before transfer.

Is it possible to begin the treatment in my country and travel at a later date?

Yes it is, long as you have a reliable scanning unit who also provide you with a written report and pictures. Then this will not be an issue for us.

How do I go about having my tests?

When contacting us, we will state which tests are required and we will email you list of centres that can help. You can choose the centre closest to you or one that you find more cost effective. 

Can you help with transportation and accommodation options?

Yes, we will be more than happy to help you. 

How long I need to be in North Cyprus for Embryo Donation treatment?

Couples or single ladies looking to travel for Embryo donation have two options:

Begnning treatment in their own country and staying for 7 nights or, 

Begining treatment stage and carrying out the required tests in their own country and then travelling to Cyprus for 2 days for the transfer only. 

How long I need to be in North Cyprus for Egg Donation treatment?

If you are looking to start in your own country then you will only need to be in North Cyprus for 7 nights. 

How long I need to be in North Cyprus for IVF treatment?

Treatment will begin in your own country staying for 7 nights. 

Who will match the donor to me?

Donor matching is made by matching your main characteristics and also blood group. We also ask for a photograph of yourself to help with the donor match.

Which airport can we travel into?

You have an option of two airports Ercan in North Cyprus or Larnaca in South Cyprus. 

Is Cyprus Island an island in conflict and will we be safe?

Cyprus is a beautiful holiday island. Although there has been a division which resulted in the North and South to be divided. Both sides of the island have beautiful beaches and a lot of historical sites.

Where is the Hospital located?

The hospital is located in Kyrenia North Cyprus. 

Where will it be best to stay?

You can stay in Kyrenia is a city located by the sea and lovely holiday destination. 

Do you have to be legally married to you partner to go undergo IVF treatment?

A couple does not legally have to married to each other.

If I forget to take a particular drug at the appointed time should i take double the amount?

No if you are just a couple of hours late talking the drug, then take it as soon as you remember and please let us know. 

Is there a waiting list for treatment?

No. We are specialist clinic.

Will I have to inject myself?

Most injections can be self administered in the comfort of your own home. They are done with a small needle placed under the skin. Our nurse will show you how to administer the infection so that you are confident with self injecting away from the clinic. 

What happens during egg retrieval?

You will be sedated and given pain relief. Your eggs are collected transvaginally using an ultrasound guide and long needle with a suction device at the end. This procedure usually takes approximately 15 - 20 minutes. 

You can read more about the process on our cahitcenksoy.com

What are my chances of success with treatment?

Several factors will effect your chances of success after treatment. Our doctor will discuss this with you following review of your medical history and results of any tests have requested. 

What happens if my treatment isn't successful?

Unfortunately there are no guarantees with any treatment. If your cycle has not been successful, our doctor will discuss the possible causes with you.

My treatment was unsuccessful, how soon can I try again?

We advise that you allow your body to rest for one or two months before resuming another cycle. 

Can I fly home on the day after the transfer?

Yes, flying after an embryo transfer is fine. Travelling does not have an adverse effect on the embryo transfer.